Python詞幹與詞形化

在自然語言處理領域,我們遇到了兩個或兩個以上單詞具有共同根源的情況。 例如,agreed, agreeingagreeable這三個詞具有相同的詞根。 涉及任何這些詞的搜索應該把它們當作是根詞的同一個詞。 因此將所有單詞鏈接到它們的詞根變得非常重要。 NLTK庫有一些方法來完成這個鏈接,並給出顯示根詞的輸出。

以下程序使用Porter Stemming算法進行詞幹分析。

import nltk
from nltk.stem.porter import PorterStemmer
porter_stemmer = PorterStemmer()

word_data = "It originated from the idea that there are readers who prefer learning new skills from the comforts of their drawing rooms"
# First Word tokenization
nltk_tokens = nltk.word_tokenize(word_data)
#Next find the roots of the word
for w in nltk_tokens:
       print ("Actual: %s  Stem: %s"  % (w,porter_stemmer.stem(w)))

執行上面示例代碼,得到以下結果 -

Actual: It  Stem: It
Actual: originated  Stem: origin
Actual: from  Stem: from
Actual: the  Stem: the
Actual: idea  Stem: idea
Actual: that  Stem: that
Actual: there  Stem: there
Actual: are  Stem: are
Actual: readers  Stem: reader
Actual: who  Stem: who
Actual: prefer  Stem: prefer
Actual: learning  Stem: learn
Actual: new  Stem: new
Actual: skills  Stem: skill
Actual: from  Stem: from
Actual: the  Stem: the
Actual: comforts  Stem: comfort
Actual: of  Stem: of
Actual: their  Stem: their
Actual: drawing  Stem: draw
Actual: rooms  Stem: room

詞形化是類似的詞幹,但是它爲詞語帶來了上下文。所以它進一步將具有相似含義的詞鏈接到一個詞。 例如,如果一個段落有像汽車,火車和汽車這樣的詞,那麼它將把它們全部連接到汽車。 在下面的程序中,使用WordNet詞法數據庫進行詞式化。

import nltk
from nltk.stem import WordNetLemmatizer
wordnet_lemmatizer = WordNetLemmatizer()

word_data = "It originated from the idea that there are readers who prefer learning new skills from the comforts of their drawing rooms"
nltk_tokens = nltk.word_tokenize(word_data)
for w in nltk_tokens:
    print ("Actual: %s  Lemma: %s"  % (w,wordnet_lemmatizer.lemmatize(w)))

當我們執行上面的代碼時,它會產生以下結果。

Actual: It  Lemma: It
Actual: originated  Lemma: originated
Actual: from  Lemma: from
Actual: the  Lemma: the
Actual: idea  Lemma: idea
Actual: that  Lemma: that
Actual: there  Lemma: there
Actual: are  Lemma: are
Actual: readers  Lemma: reader
Actual: who  Lemma: who
Actual: prefer  Lemma: prefer
Actual: learning  Lemma: learning
Actual: new  Lemma: new
Actual: skills  Lemma: skill
Actual: from  Lemma: from
Actual: the  Lemma: the
Actual: comforts  Lemma: comfort
Actual: of  Lemma: of
Actual: their  Lemma: their
Actual: drawing  Lemma: drawing
Actual: rooms  Lemma: room
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