Spring Boot Rest控制器單元測試

Spring Boot提供了一種爲Rest Controller文件編寫單元測試的簡便方法。在SpringJUnit4ClassRunner和MockMvc的幫助下,可以創建一個Web應用程序上下文來爲Rest Controller文件編寫單元測試。
單元測試應該寫在src/test/java目錄下,用於編寫測試的類路徑資源應該放在src/test/resources目錄下。
對於編寫單元測試,需要在構建配置文件中添加Spring Boot Starter Test依賴項,如下所示。

<dependency>
   <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
   <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-test</artifactId>
   <scope>test</scope>
</dependency>

Gradle用戶可以在build.gradle 文件中添加以下依賴項。

testCompile('org.springframework.boot:spring-boot-starter-test')

在編寫測試用例之前,應該先構建RESTful Web服務。 有關構建RESTful Web服務的更多信息,請參閱本教程中給出的相同章節。

編寫REST控制器的單元測試

在本節中,看看如何爲REST控制器編寫單元測試。
首先,需要創建用於通過使用MockMvc創建Web應用程序上下文的Abstract類文件,並定義mapToJson()mapFromJson()方法以將Java對象轉換爲JSON字符串並將JSON字符串轉換爲Java對象。

package com.yiibai.demo;

import java.io.IOException;
import org.junit.runner.RunWith;
import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Autowired;
import org.springframework.boot.test.context.SpringBootTest;
import org.springframework.test.context.junit4.SpringJUnit4ClassRunner;
import org.springframework.test.context.web.WebAppConfiguration;
import org.springframework.test.web.servlet.MockMvc;
import org.springframework.test.web.servlet.setup.MockMvcBuilders;
import org.springframework.web.context.WebApplicationContext;

import com.fasterxml.jackson.core.JsonParseException;
import com.fasterxml.jackson.core.JsonProcessingException;
import com.fasterxml.jackson.databind.JsonMappingException;
import com.fasterxml.jackson.databind.ObjectMapper;

@RunWith(SpringJUnit4ClassRunner.class)
@SpringBootTest(classes = DemoApplication.class)
@WebAppConfiguration
public abstract class AbstractTest {
   protected MockMvc mvc;
   @Autowired
   WebApplicationContext webApplicationContext;

   protected void setUp() {
      mvc = MockMvcBuilders.webAppContextSetup(webApplicationContext).build();
   }
   protected String mapToJson(Object obj) throws JsonProcessingException {
      ObjectMapper objectMapper = new ObjectMapper();
      return objectMapper.writeValueAsString(obj);
   }
   protected <T> T mapFromJson(String json, Class<T> clazz)
      throws JsonParseException, JsonMappingException, IOException {

      ObjectMapper objectMapper = new ObjectMapper();
      return objectMapper.readValue(json, clazz);
   }
}

接下來,編寫一個擴展AbstractTest類的類文件,併爲每個方法(如GETPOSTPUTDELETE)編寫單元測試。

下面給出了GET API測試用例的代碼。 此API用於查看產品列表。

@Test
public void getProductsList() throws Exception {
   String uri = "/products";
   MvcResult mvcResult = mvc.perform(MockMvcRequestBuilders.get(uri)
      .accept(MediaType.APPLICATION_JSON_VALUE)).andReturn();

   int status = mvcResult.getResponse().getStatus();
   assertEquals(200, status);
   String content = mvcResult.getResponse().getContentAsString();
   Product[] productlist = super.mapFromJson(content, Product[].class);
   assertTrue(productlist.length > 0);
}

POST API測試用例的代碼如下。 此API用於創建產品。

@Test
public void createProduct() throws Exception {
   String uri = "/products";
   Product product = new Product();
   product.setId("3");
   product.setName("Ginger");

   String inputJson = super.mapToJson(product);
   MvcResult mvcResult = mvc.perform(MockMvcRequestBuilders.post(uri)
      .contentType(MediaType.APPLICATION_JSON_VALUE).content(inputJson)).andReturn();

   int status = mvcResult.getResponse().getStatus();
   assertEquals(201, status);
   String content = mvcResult.getResponse().getContentAsString();
   assertEquals(content, "Product is created successfully");
}

下面給出了PUT API測試用例的代碼。 此API用於更新現有產品。

@Test
public void updateProduct() throws Exception {
   String uri = "/products/2";
   Product product = new Product();
   product.setName("Lemon");

   String inputJson = super.mapToJson(product);
   MvcResult mvcResult = mvc.perform(MockMvcRequestBuilders.put(uri)
      .contentType(MediaType.APPLICATION_JSON_VALUE).content(inputJson)).andReturn();

   int status = mvcResult.getResponse().getStatus();
   assertEquals(200, status);
   String content = mvcResult.getResponse().getContentAsString();
   assertEquals(content, "Product is updated successsfully");
}

Delete API測試用例的代碼如下。 此API將刪除現有產品。

@Test
public void deleteProduct() throws Exception {
   String uri = "/products/2";
   MvcResult mvcResult = mvc.perform(MockMvcRequestBuilders.delete(uri)).andReturn();
   int status = mvcResult.getResponse().getStatus();
   assertEquals(200, status);
   String content = mvcResult.getResponse().getContentAsString();
   assertEquals(content, "Product is deleted successsfully");
}

完整的控制器測試類文件代碼如下 -

package com.yiibai.demo;

import static org.junit.Assert.assertEquals;
import static org.junit.Assert.assertTrue;

import org.junit.Before;
import org.junit.Test;
import org.springframework.http.MediaType;
import org.springframework.test.web.servlet.MvcResult;
import org.springframework.test.web.servlet.request.MockMvcRequestBuilders;

import com.yiibai.demo.model.Product;

public class ProductServiceControllerTest extends AbstractTest {
   @Override
   @Before
   public void setUp() {
      super.setUp();
   }
   @Test
   public void getProductsList() throws Exception {
      String uri = "/products";
      MvcResult mvcResult = mvc.perform(MockMvcRequestBuilders.get(uri)
         .accept(MediaType.APPLICATION_JSON_VALUE)).andReturn();

      int status = mvcResult.getResponse().getStatus();
      assertEquals(200, status);
      String content = mvcResult.getResponse().getContentAsString();
      Product[] productlist = super.mapFromJson(content, Product[].class);
      assertTrue(productlist.length > 0);
   }
   @Test
   public void createProduct() throws Exception {
      String uri = "/products";
      Product product = new Product();
      product.setId("3");
      product.setName("Ginger");
      String inputJson = super.mapToJson(product);
      MvcResult mvcResult = mvc.perform(MockMvcRequestBuilders.post(uri)
         .contentType(MediaType.APPLICATION_JSON_VALUE)
         .content(inputJson)).andReturn();

      int status = mvcResult.getResponse().getStatus();
      assertEquals(201, status);
      String content = mvcResult.getResponse().getContentAsString();
      assertEquals(content, "Product is created successfully");
   }
   @Test
   public void updateProduct() throws Exception {
      String uri = "/products/2";
      Product product = new Product();
      product.setName("Lemon");
      String inputJson = super.mapToJson(product);
      MvcResult mvcResult = mvc.perform(MockMvcRequestBuilders.put(uri)
         .contentType(MediaType.APPLICATION_JSON_VALUE)
         .content(inputJson)).andReturn();

      int status = mvcResult.getResponse().getStatus();
      assertEquals(200, status);
      String content = mvcResult.getResponse().getContentAsString();
      assertEquals(content, "Product is updated successsfully");
   }
   @Test
   public void deleteProduct() throws Exception {
      String uri = "/products/2";
      MvcResult mvcResult = mvc.perform(MockMvcRequestBuilders.delete(uri)).andReturn();
      int status = mvcResult.getResponse().getStatus();
      assertEquals(200, status);
      String content = mvcResult.getResponse().getContentAsString();
      assertEquals(content, "Product is deleted successsfully");
   }
}

創建一個可執行的JAR文件,並使用下面給出的Maven或Gradle命令運行Spring Boot應用程序 -

對於Maven,可以使用下面給出的命令 -

mvn clean install

現在,在控制檯窗口中看到測試結果。

Spring Boot Rest控制器單元測試