Spring Boot快速入門

本章將演示如何使用Maven和Gradle創建Spring Boot應用程序。

前提條件

系統需要具有以下創建Spring Boot應用程序的最低要求 -

  • Java 7
  • Maven 3.2
  • Gradle 2.5

Spring Boot CLI

Spring Boot CLI是一個命令行工具,它用於運行Groovy腳本。它是使用Spring Boot命令行界面創建Spring Boot應用程序的最簡單方法。可以在命令提示符下創建,運行和測試應用程序。

本節介紹手動安裝Spring Boot CLI所涉及的步驟。 如需進一步的幫助,可以使用以下鏈接:

還可以從Spring Software存儲庫下載Spring CLI發行版:

對於手動安裝,需要使用以下兩個文件夾 -

  • spring-boot-cli-2.0.0.BUILD-SNAPSHOT-bin.zip
  • spring-boot-cli-2.0.0.BUILD-SNAPSHOT-bin.tar.gz

下載後,解壓縮歸檔文件並按照install.txt文件中給出的步驟進行操作。 並不是說它不需要任何環境設置。
在Windows中,轉到命令提示符下的Spring Boot CLI bin目錄並運行命令spring --version以確保正確安裝了spring CLI。 執行命令後,可以看到spring CLI版本,如下所示 -

Spring Boot快速入門

使用Groovy運行Hello World

創建一個包含Rest Endpoint腳本的簡單groovy文件:hello.groovy,並使用spring boot CLI運行groovy文件。代碼如下所示 -

@Controller
class Example {
   @RequestMapping("/")
   @ResponseBody
   public String hello() {
      "Hello Spring Boot"
   }
}

請注意,在這個示例中,已經配置Spring Boot CLI bin目錄到系統環境變量,並把文件:hello.groovy保存到D:/worksp/springboot/目錄。使用命令spring run hello.groovy運行應用程序,如下面所示 -

D:\worksp\springboot>spring run hello.groovy

執行結果如下所示:

D:\worksp\springboot>spring run hello.groovy

  .   ____          _            __ _ _
 /\\ / ___'_ __ _ _(_)_ __  __ _ \ \ \ \
( ( )\___ | '_ | '_| | '_ \/ _` | \ \ \ \
 \\/  ___)| |_)| | | | | || (_| |  ) ) ) )
  '  |____| .__|_| |_|_| |_\__, | / / / /
 =========|_|==============|___/=/_/_/_/
 :: Spring Boot ::        (v2.0.5.RELEASE)

2018-09-26 09:34:13.782  INFO 13908 --- [       runner-0] o.s.boot.SpringApplication               : Starting application on DESKTOP-CAN8JLM with PID 13908 (started by hema in D:\worksp\springboot)
2018-09-26 09:34:13.810  INFO 13908 --- [       runner-0] o.s.boot.SpringApplication               : No active profile set, falling back to default profiles: default
2018-09-26 09:34:14.747  INFO 13908 --- [       runner-0] ConfigServletWebServerApplicationContext : Refreshing org.springframework.boot.web.ser[email protected]2ec39a62: startup date [Wed Sep 26 09:34:14 CST 2018]; root of context hierarchy
2018-09-26 09:34:18.655  INFO 13908 --- [       runner-0] o.s.b.w.embedded.tomcat.TomcatWebServer  : Tomcat initialized with port(s): 8080 (http)
2018-09-26 09:34:18.735  INFO 13908 --- [       runner-0] o.apache.catalina.core.StandardService   : Starting service [Tomcat]
2018-09-26 09:34:18.736  INFO 13908 --- [       runner-0] org.apache.catalina.core.StandardEngine  : Starting Servlet Engine: Apache Tomcat/8.5.34
2018-09-26 09:34:18.756  INFO 13908 --- [ost-startStop-1] o.a.catalina.core.AprLifecycleListener   : The APR based Apache Tomcat Native library which allows optimal performance in production environments was not found on the java.library.path: [C:\Program Files (x86)\Common Files\Oracle\Java\javapath;C:\WINDOWS\Sun\Java\bin;C:\WINDOWS\system32;C:\WINDOWS;C:\Program Files (x86)\Common Files\Oracle\Java\javapath;C:\WINDOWS\system32;C:\WINDOWS;C:\WINDOWS\System32\Wbem;C:\WINDOWS\System32\WindowsPowerShell\v1.0\;C:\Program Files (x86)\PuTTY\;C:\Program Files\dotnet\;C:\Program Files\Microsoft SQL Server\130\Tools\Binn\;C:\WINDOWS\System32\OpenSSH\;D:\wamp\bin\php\php7.0.29;C:\Program Files (x86)\nodejs\;D:\software\spring-2.0.5.RELEASE\bin;D:\Program Files\Python3\Scripts\;D:\Program Files\Python3\;C:\Users\hema\AppData\Local\Microsoft\WindowsApps;C:\Users\hema\AppData\Roaming\npm;.]
2018-09-26 09:34:19.030  INFO 13908 --- [ost-startStop-1] org.apache.catalina.loader.WebappLoader  : Unknown loader org.springframework.boot.cli.c[email protected]24ef272d class org.springframework.boot.cli.compiler.ExtendedGroovyClassLoader$DefaultScopeParentClassLoader
2018-09-26 09:34:19.140  INFO 13908 --- [ost-startStop-1] o.a.c.c.C.[Tomcat].[localhost].[/]       : Initializing Spring embedded WebApplicationContext
2018-09-26 09:34:19.140  INFO 13908 --- [ost-startStop-1] o.s.web.context.ContextLoader            : Root WebApplicationContext: initialization completed in 4398 ms
2018-09-26 09:34:19.303  INFO 13908 --- [ost-startStop-1] o.s.b.w.servlet.ServletRegistrationBean  : Servlet dispatcherServlet mapped to [/]
2018-09-26 09:34:19.311  INFO 13908 --- [ost-startStop-1] o.s.b.w.servlet.FilterRegistrationBean   : Mapping filter: 'characterEncodingFilter' to: [/*]
2018-09-26 09:34:19.318  INFO 13908 --- [ost-startStop-1] o.s.b.w.servlet.FilterRegistrationBean   : Mapping filter: 'hiddenHttpMethodFilter' to: [/*]
2018-09-26 09:34:19.320  INFO 13908 --- [ost-startStop-1] o.s.b.w.servlet.FilterRegistrationBean   : Mapping filter: 'httpPutFormContentFilter' to: [/*]
2018-09-26 09:34:19.322  INFO 13908 --- [ost-startStop-1] o.s.b.w.servlet.FilterRegistrationBean   : Mapping filter: 'requestContextFilter' to: [/*]
2018-09-26 09:34:19.556  INFO 13908 --- [       runner-0] o.s.w.s.handler.SimpleUrlHandlerMapping  : Mapped URL path [/**/favicon.ico] onto handler of type [class org.springframework.web.servlet.resource.ResourceHttpRequestHandler]
2018-09-26 09:34:19.831  INFO 13908 --- [       runner-0] s.w.s.m.m.a.RequestMappingHandlerAdapter : Looking for @ControllerAdvice: org.springframework.boot.web.ser[email protected]2ec39a62: startup date [Wed Sep 26 09:34:14 CST 2018]; root of context hierarchy
2018-09-26 09:34:19.998  INFO 13908 --- [       runner-0] s.w.s.m.m.a.RequestMappingHandlerMapping : Mapped "{[/]}" onto public java.lang.String Example.hello()
2018-09-26 09:34:20.004  INFO 13908 --- [       runner-0] s.w.s.m.m.a.RequestMappingHandlerMapping : Mapped "{[/error]}" onto public org.springframework.http.ResponseEntity<java.util.Map<java.lang.String, java.lang.Object>> org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.web.servlet.error.BasicErrorController.error(javax.servlet.http.HttpServletRequest)
2018-09-26 09:34:20.006  INFO 13908 --- [       runner-0] s.w.s.m.m.a.RequestMappingHandlerMapping : Mapped "{[/error],produces=[text/html]}" onto public org.springframework.web.servlet.ModelAndView org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.web.servlet.error.BasicErrorController.errorHtml(javax.servlet.http.HttpServletRequest,javax.servlet.http.HttpServletResponse)
2018-09-26 09:34:20.050  INFO 13908 --- [       runner-0] o.s.w.s.handler.SimpleUrlHandlerMapping  : Mapped URL path [/webjars/**] onto handler of type [class org.springframework.web.servlet.resource.ResourceHttpRequestHandler]
2018-09-26 09:34:20.053  INFO 13908 --- [       runner-0] o.s.w.s.handler.SimpleUrlHandlerMapping  : Mapped URL path [/**] onto handler of type [class org.springframework.web.servlet.resource.ResourceHttpRequestHandler]
2018-09-26 09:34:20.651  INFO 13908 --- [       runner-0] o.s.j.e.a.AnnotationMBeanExporter        : Registering beans for JMX exposure on startup
2018-09-26 09:34:20.821  INFO 13908 --- [       runner-0] o.s.b.w.embedded.tomcat.TomcatWebServer  : Tomcat started on port(s): 8080 (http) with context path ''
2018-09-26 09:34:20.830  INFO 13908 --- [       runner-0] o.s.boot.SpringApplication               : Started application in 9.092 seconds (JVM running for 15.353)

運行groovy文件,所需的依賴項將自動下載,它將在Tomcat 8080端口啓動應用程序,如下面給出的屏幕截圖所示 -
Tomcat啓動後,轉到Web瀏覽器並點擊URL => http://localhost:8080/,可以看到輸出,如圖所示:

Spring Boot快速入門