C/C++連接PostgreSQL數據庫


本教程將使用libpqxx庫,它是PostgreSQL的官方C++客戶端API。 libpqxx的源代碼可以在BSD許可證下使用,因此您可以免費下載它,將其傳遞給其他人,更改它,銷售,將其包含在您自己的代碼中,並與任何人分享您的更改/修改。

安裝

最新版本的libpqxx可從鏈接下載:Libpqxx下載。 所以下載最新版本,並按照以下步驟:

wget http://pqxx.org/download/software/libpqxx/libpqxx-4.0.tar.gz
tar xvfz libpqxx-4.0.tar.gz
cd libpqxx-4.0
./configure
make
make install

在開始使用C/C++的PostgreSQL接口之前,請在PostgreSQL安裝目錄中找到pg_hba.conf文件,並添加以下行:

# IPv4 local connections:
host    all         all         127.0.0.1/32          md5

可以啓動/重新啓動postgres服務器,使用以下命令運行:

[[email protected]]# service postgresql restart
Stopping postgresql service:                               [  OK  ]
Starting postgresql service:                               [  OK  ]

C/C++連接到PostgreSQL數據庫

以下C代碼段顯示如何連接到端口5432上本地機器上運行的現有數據庫。在這裏,我使用反斜槓\行繼續。

#include <iostream>
#include <pqxx/pqxx> 

using namespace std;
using namespace pqxx;

int main(int argc, char* argv[])
{
   try{
      connection C("dbname=testdb user=postgres password=cohondob \
      hostaddr=127.0.0.1 port=5432");
      if (C.is_open()) {
         cout << "Opened database successfully: " << C.dbname() << endl;
      } else {
         cout << "Can't open database" << endl;
         return 1;
      }
      C.disconnect ();
   }catch (const std::exception &e){
      cerr << e.what() << std::endl;
      return 1;
   }
}

現在,我們編譯並運行上面的程序來連接到數據庫testdb,它已經在你的架構中可用,可以使用用戶postgres和密碼爲:pass123進行訪問。 您可以根據數據庫設置使用用戶名和密碼。記住保持-lpqxx-lpq在給定的順序! 否則,鏈接器將抱怨關於缺少以「PQ」開頭的名稱的函數。

$g++ test.cpp -lpqxx -lpq
$./a.out
Opened database successfully: testdb

創建表

以下C代碼段將用於在之前創建的數據庫(testdb)中創建一個表:

#include <iostream>
#include <pqxx/pqxx> 

using namespace std;
using namespace pqxx;

int main(int argc, char* argv[])
{
   char * sql;

   try{
      connection C("dbname=testdb user=postgres password=cohondob \
      hostaddr=127.0.0.1 port=5432");
      if (C.is_open()) {
         cout << "Opened database successfully: " << C.dbname() << endl;
      } else {
         cout << "Can't open database" << endl;
         return 1;
      }
      /* Create SQL statement */
      sql = "CREATE TABLE COMPANY("  \
      "ID INT PRIMARY KEY     NOT NULL," \
      "NAME           TEXT    NOT NULL," \
      "AGE            INT     NOT NULL," \
      "ADDRESS        CHAR(50)," \
      "SALARY         REAL );";

      /* Create a transactional object. */
      work W(C);

      /* Execute SQL query */
      W.exec( sql );
      W.commit();
      cout << "Table created successfully" << endl;
      C.disconnect ();
   }catch (const std::exception &e){
      cerr << e.what() << std::endl;
      return 1;
   }

   return 0;
}

當編譯和執行上述程序時,它將在testdb數據庫中創建一張COMPANY表,並顯示以下語句:

Opened database successfully: testdb
Table created successfully

插入操作

以下C代碼段顯示瞭如何在上述示例中創建的COMPANY表中創建記錄:

#include <iostream>
#include <pqxx/pqxx> 

using namespace std;
using namespace pqxx;

int main(int argc, char* argv[])
{
   char * sql;

   try{
      connection C("dbname=testdb user=postgres password=cohondob \
      hostaddr=127.0.0.1 port=5432");
      if (C.is_open()) {
         cout << "Opened database successfully: " << C.dbname() << endl;
      } else {
         cout << "Can't open database" << endl;
         return 1;
      }
      /* Create SQL statement */
      sql = "INSERT INTO COMPANY (ID,NAME,AGE,ADDRESS,SALARY) "  \
      "VALUES (1, 'Paul', 32, 'California', 20000.00 ); " \
      "INSERT INTO COMPANY (ID,NAME,AGE,ADDRESS,SALARY) "  \
      "VALUES (2, 'Allen', 25, 'Texas', 15000.00 ); "     \
      "INSERT INTO COMPANY (ID,NAME,AGE,ADDRESS,SALARY)" \
      "VALUES (3, 'Teddy', 23, 'Norway', 20000.00 );" \
      "INSERT INTO COMPANY (ID,NAME,AGE,ADDRESS,SALARY)" \
      "VALUES (4, 'Mark', 25, 'Rich-Mond ', 65000.00 );";

      /* Create a transactional object. */
      work W(C);

      /* Execute SQL query */
      W.exec( sql );
      W.commit();
      cout << "Records created successfully" << endl;
      C.disconnect ();
   }catch (const std::exception &e){
      cerr << e.what() << std::endl;
      return 1;
   }

   return 0;
}

當上述程序被編譯和執行時,它將在COMPANY表中創建給定的記錄,並顯示以下兩行:

Opened database successfully: testdb
Records created successfully

SELECT操作

以下C代碼段顯示瞭如何從上述示例中創建的COMPANY表中獲取和顯示記錄:

#include <iostream>
#include <pqxx/pqxx> 

using namespace std;
using namespace pqxx;

int main(int argc, char* argv[])
{
   char * sql;

   try{
      connection C("dbname=testdb user=postgres password=cohondob \
      hostaddr=127.0.0.1 port=5432");
      if (C.is_open()) {
         cout << "Opened database successfully: " << C.dbname() << endl;
      } else {
         cout << "Can't open database" << endl;
         return 1;
      }
      /* Create SQL statement */
      sql = "SELECT * from COMPANY";

      /* Create a non-transactional object. */
      nontransaction N(C);

      /* Execute SQL query */
      result R( N.exec( sql ));

      /* List down all the records */
      for (result::const_iterator c = R.begin(); c != R.end(); ++c) {
         cout << "ID = " << c[0].as<int>() << endl;
         cout << "Name = " << c[1].as<string>() << endl;
         cout << "Age = " << c[2].as<int>() << endl;
         cout << "Address = " << c[3].as<string>() << endl;
         cout << "Salary = " << c[4].as<float>() << endl;
      }
      cout << "Operation done successfully" << endl;
      C.disconnect ();
   }catch (const std::exception &e){
      cerr << e.what() << std::endl;
      return 1;
   }

   return 0;
}

當上述程序被編譯和執行時,將產生以下結果:

Opened database successfully: testdb
ID = 1
Name = Paul
Age = 32
Address = California
Salary = 20000
ID = 2
Name = Allen
Age = 25
Address = Texas
Salary = 15000
ID = 3
Name = Teddy
Age = 23
Address = Norway
Salary = 20000
ID = 4
Name = Mark
Age = 25
Address = Rich-Mond
Salary = 65000
Operation done successfully

更新操作

以下C代碼段顯示瞭如何使用UPDATE語句來更新指定記錄,然後從COMPANY表中獲取並顯示更新的記錄:

#include <iostream>
#include <pqxx/pqxx> 

using namespace std;
using namespace pqxx;

int main(int argc, char* argv[])
{
   char * sql;

   try{
      connection C("dbname=testdb user=postgres password=cohondob \
      hostaddr=127.0.0.1 port=5432");
      if (C.is_open()) {
         cout << "Opened database successfully: " << C.dbname() << endl;
      } else {
         cout << "Can't open database" << endl;
         return 1;
      }

      /* Create a transactional object. */
      work W(C);
      /* Create  SQL UPDATE statement */
      sql = "UPDATE COMPANY set SALARY = 25000.00 where ID=1";
      /* Execute SQL query */
      W.exec( sql );
      W.commit();
      cout << "Records updated successfully" << endl;

      /* Create SQL SELECT statement */
      sql = "SELECT * from COMPANY";

      /* Create a non-transactional object. */
      nontransaction N(C);

      /* Execute SQL query */
      result R( N.exec( sql ));

      /* List down all the records */
      for (result::const_iterator c = R.begin(); c != R.end(); ++c) {
         cout << "ID = " << c[0].as<int>() << endl;
         cout << "Name = " << c[1].as<string>() << endl;
         cout << "Age = " << c[2].as<int>() << endl;
         cout << "Address = " << c[3].as<string>() << endl;
         cout << "Salary = " << c[4].as<float>() << endl;
      }
      cout << "Operation done successfully" << endl;
      C.disconnect ();
   }catch (const std::exception &e){
      cerr << e.what() << std::endl;
      return 1;
   }

   return 0;
}

當上述程序被編譯和執行時,將產生以下結果:

Opened database successfully: testdb
Records updated successfully
ID = 2
Name = Allen
Age = 25
Address = Texas
Salary = 15000
ID = 3
Name = Teddy
Age = 23
Address = Norway
Salary = 20000
ID = 4
Name = Mark
Age = 25
Address = Rich-Mond
Salary = 65000
ID = 1
Name = Paul
Age = 32
Address = California
Salary = 25000
Operation done successfully

刪除操作

以下C代碼段顯示瞭如何使用DELETE語句刪除指定記錄,然後再COMPANY表中獲取並顯示剩餘的記錄:

#include <iostream>
#include <pqxx/pqxx> 

using namespace std;
using namespace pqxx;

int main(int argc, char* argv[])
{
   char * sql;

   try{
      connection C("dbname=testdb user=postgres password=cohondob \
      hostaddr=127.0.0.1 port=5432");
      if (C.is_open()) {
         cout << "Opened database successfully: " << C.dbname() << endl;
      } else {
         cout << "Can't open database" << endl;
         return 1;
      }

      /* Create a transactional object. */
      work W(C);
      /* Create  SQL DELETE statement */
      sql = "DELETE from COMPANY where ID = 2";
      /* Execute SQL query */
      W.exec( sql );
      W.commit();
      cout << "Records deleted successfully" << endl;

      /* Create SQL SELECT statement */
      sql = "SELECT * from COMPANY";

      /* Create a non-transactional object. */
      nontransaction N(C);

      /* Execute SQL query */
      result R( N.exec( sql ));

      /* List down all the records */
      for (result::const_iterator c = R.begin(); c != R.end(); ++c) {
         cout << "ID = " << c[0].as<int>() << endl;
         cout << "Name = " << c[1].as<string>() << endl;
         cout << "Age = " << c[2].as<int>() << endl;
         cout << "Address = " << c[3].as<string>() << endl;
         cout << "Salary = " << c[4].as<float>() << endl;
      }
      cout << "Operation done successfully" << endl;
      C.disconnect ();
   }catch (const std::exception &e){
      cerr << e.what() << std::endl;
      return 1;
   }

   return 0;
}

當上述程序被編譯和執行時,將產生以下結果:

Opened database successfully: testdb
Records deleted successfully
ID = 3
Name = Teddy
Age = 23
Address = Norway
Salary = 20000
ID = 4
Name = Mark
Age = 25
Address = Rich-Mond
Salary = 65000
ID = 1
Name = Paul
Age = 32
Address = California
Salary = 25000
Operation done successfully