詞幹算法

在自然語言處理領域,會遇到兩個或多個單詞具有共同根的情況。 例如,三個詞 - agreed, agreeingagreeable 具有相同的詞根同意。 涉及任何這些詞的搜索應將它們視爲同一個詞,即根詞。 因此,將所有單詞鏈接到根詞中變得至關重要。 NLTK庫具有執行此鏈接的方法,並提供顯示根詞的輸出。

nltk中有三種最常用的詞幹算法。它們的結果略有不同。 以下示例顯示了所有三種詞幹算法及其結果的使用。

import nltk
from nltk.stem.porter import PorterStemmer
from nltk.stem.lancaster import LancasterStemmer
from nltk.stem import SnowballStemmer 

porter_stemmer = PorterStemmer()
lanca_stemmer = LancasterStemmer()
sb_stemmer = SnowballStemmer("english",)

word_data = "Aging head of famous crime family decides to transfer his position to one of his subalterns" 
# First Word tokenization
nltk_tokens = nltk.word_tokenize(word_data)
#Next find the roots of the word
print '***PorterStemmer****\n'
for w_port in nltk_tokens:
   print "Actual: %s  || Stem: %s"  % (w_port,porter_stemmer.stem(w_port))

print '\n***LancasterStemmer****\n'    
for w_lanca in nltk_tokens:
      print "Actual: %s  || Stem: %s"  % (w_lanca,lanca_stemmer.stem(w_lanca))
print '\n***SnowballStemmer****\n' 

for w_snow in nltk_tokens:
      print "Actual: %s  || Stem: %s"  % (w_snow,sb_stemmer.stem(w_snow))

當運行上面的程序時,我們得到以下輸出 -

***PorterStemmer****

Actual: Aging  || Stem: age
Actual: head  || Stem: head
Actual: of  || Stem: of
Actual: famous  || Stem: famou
Actual: crime  || Stem: crime
Actual: family  || Stem: famili
Actual: decides  || Stem: decid
Actual: to  || Stem: to
Actual: transfer  || Stem: transfer
Actual: his  || Stem: hi
Actual: position  || Stem: posit
Actual: to  || Stem: to
Actual: one  || Stem: one
Actual: of  || Stem: of
Actual: his  || Stem: hi
Actual: subalterns  || Stem: subaltern

***LancasterStemmer****

Actual: Aging  || Stem: ag
Actual: head  || Stem: head
Actual: of  || Stem: of
Actual: famous  || Stem: fam
Actual: crime  || Stem: crim
Actual: family  || Stem: famy
Actual: decides  || Stem: decid
Actual: to  || Stem: to
Actual: transfer  || Stem: transf
Actual: his  || Stem: his
Actual: position  || Stem: posit
Actual: to  || Stem: to
Actual: one  || Stem: on
Actual: of  || Stem: of
Actual: his  || Stem: his
Actual: subalterns  || Stem: subaltern

***SnowballStemmer****

Actual: Aging  || Stem: age
Actual: head  || Stem: head
Actual: of  || Stem: of
Actual: famous  || Stem: famous
Actual: crime  || Stem: crime
Actual: family  || Stem: famili
Actual: decides  || Stem: decid
Actual: to  || Stem: to
Actual: transfer  || Stem: transfer
Actual: his  || Stem: his
Actual: position  || Stem: posit
Actual: to  || Stem: to
Actual: one  || Stem: one
Actual: of  || Stem: of
Actual: his  || Stem: his
Actual: subalterns  || Stem: subaltern
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