TestNG參數化測試

TestNG中的另一個有趣的功能是參數化測試。 在大多數情況下,您會遇到業務邏輯需要大量測試的場景。 參數化測試允許開發人員使用不同的值一次又一次地運行相同的測試。

TestNG可以通過兩種不同的方式將參數直接傳遞給測試方法:

  • 使用testng.xml
  • 使用數據提供者

在本教程中,我們將向您展示如何通過XML [@Parameters](https://github.com/Parameters "@Parameters")[@DataProvider](https://github.com/DataProvider "@DataProvider")將參數傳遞給[@Test](https://github.com/Test "@Test")方法。

爲了方便演示,這裏創建一個名稱爲:ParameterTest 的 Maven 工程,其結構如下所示 -
TestNG參數化測試

1. 使用XML傳遞參數

在此示例中,filename屬性從testng.xml傳遞,並通過[@Parameters](https://github.com/Parameters "@Parameters")注入到該方法中。

依懶文件:pom.xml 文件代碼如下所示 -

<project xmlns="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
    xsi:schemaLocation="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0 http://maven.apache.org/xsd/maven-4.0.0.xsd">
    <modelVersion>4.0.0</modelVersion>

    <groupId>com.yiibai</groupId>
    <artifactId>IgnoreTest</artifactId>
    <version>0.0.1-SNAPSHOT</version>
    <packaging>jar</packaging>

    <name>IgnoreTest</name>
    <url>http://maven.apache.org</url>

    <properties>
        <project.build.sourceEncoding>UTF-8</project.build.sourceEncoding>
    </properties>

    <dependencies>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.testng</groupId>
            <artifactId>testng</artifactId>
            <version>6.8.7</version>
            <scope>test</scope>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>junit</groupId>
            <artifactId>junit</artifactId>
            <version>3.8.1</version>
            <scope>test</scope>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>mysql</groupId>
            <artifactId>mysql-connector-java</artifactId>
            <version>6.0.2</version>
        </dependency>
    </dependencies>
    <build>
        <defaultGoal>compile</defaultGoal>
    </build>

</project>

創建一個名稱爲:TestParameterXML.java,其代碼如下所示 -

package com.yiibai;

import java.io.FileInputStream;
import java.io.IOException;
import java.io.InputStream;
import java.net.URL;
import java.sql.Connection;
import java.sql.DriverManager;
import java.util.Properties;

import org.testng.annotations.Parameters;
import org.testng.annotations.Test;

public class TestParameterXML {

    Connection con;

    @Test
    @Parameters({ "dbconfig", "poolsize" })
    public void createConnection(String dbconfig, int poolsize) {

        System.out.println("dbconfig : " + dbconfig);
        System.out.println("poolsize : " + poolsize);

        Properties prop = new Properties();
        InputStream input = null;

        try {
            // get properties file from project classpath
            String path = System.getProperty("user.dir")+"\\"+dbconfig;

            System.out.println("path => "+path);
            //input = getClass().getClassLoader().getResourceAsStream(path);

            //prop.load(input);
            prop.load(new FileInputStream(dbconfig));  

            String drivers = prop.getProperty("jdbc.driver");
            String connectionURL = prop.getProperty("jdbc.url");
            String username = prop.getProperty("jdbc.username");
            String password = prop.getProperty("jdbc.password");

            System.out.println("drivers : " + drivers);
            System.out.println("connectionURL : " + connectionURL);
            System.out.println("username : " + username);
            System.out.println("password : " + password);

            Class.forName(drivers);
            con = DriverManager.getConnection(connectionURL, username, password);

        } catch (Exception e) {
            //e.printStackTrace();
        } finally {
            if (input != null) {
                try {
                    input.close();
                } catch (IOException e) {
                    //e.printStackTrace();
                }
            }
        }

    }

}

創建一個名稱爲:db.properties 的文件, 其代碼如下所示 -

jdbc.driver=com.mysql.jdbc.Driver
jdbc.url=jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/test
jdbc.username=root
jdbc.password=123456

創建一個名稱爲:testng.xml 的文件, 其代碼如下所示 -

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<suite name="test-parameter">

    <test name="example1">

        <parameter name="dbconfig" value="db.properties" />
        <parameter name="poolsize" value="10" />

        <classes>
            <class name="com.yiibai.TestParameterXML" />
        </classes>

    </test>

</suite>

執行上面測試類代碼,得到以下結果 -

[TestNG] Running:
  F:\worksp\testng\ParameterTest\src\main\java\com\yiibai\testng.xml

dbconfig : db.properties
poolsize : 10
path => F:\worksp\testng\ParameterTest\db.properties
drivers : com.mysql.jdbc.Driver
connectionURL : jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/test
username : root
password : 123456
Loading class `com.mysql.jdbc.Driver'. This is deprecated. The new driver class is `com.mysql.cj.jdbc.Driver'. The driver is automatically registered via the SPI and manual loading of the driver class is generally unnecessary.
Tue May 02 23:11:05 CST 2017 WARN: Establishing SSL connection without server's identity verification is not recommended. According to MySQL 5.5.45+, 5.6.26+ and 5.7.6+ requirements SSL connection must be established by default if explicit option isn't set. For compliance with existing applications not using SSL the verifyServerCertificate property is set to 'false'. You need either to explicitly disable SSL by setting useSSL=false, or set useSSL=true and provide truststore for server certificate verification.

===============================================
test-parameter
Total tests run: 1, Failures: 0, Skips: 0
===============================================

2. 通過@DataProvider傳遞參數

2.1. 查看一個簡單的[@DataProvider](https://github.com/DataProvider "@DataProvider")示例,傳遞一個int參數。

創建一個名稱爲:TestParameterDataProvider.java 的文件, 其代碼如下所示 -

package com.yiibai;

import org.testng.Assert;
import org.testng.annotations.DataProvider;
import org.testng.annotations.Test;

public class TestParameterDataProvider {

    @Test(dataProvider = "provideNumbers")
    public void test(int number, int expected) {
        Assert.assertEquals(number + 10, expected);
    }

    @DataProvider(name = "provideNumbers")
    public Object[][] provideData() {

        return new Object[][] { { 10, 20 }, { 100, 110 }, { 200, 210 } };
    }

}

執行上面測試類代碼,得到以下結果 -

[TestNG] Running:
  C:\Users\Administrator\AppData\Local\Temp\testng-eclipse--1925148879\testng-customsuite.xml

PASSED: test(10, 20)
PASSED: test(100, 110)
PASSED: test(200, 210)

===============================================
    Default test
    Tests run: 3, Failures: 0, Skips: 0
===============================================


===============================================
Default suite
Total tests run: 3, Failures: 0, Skips: 0
===============================================

[TestNG] Time taken by [email protected]: 13 ms
[TestNG] Time taken by [email protected]: 34 ms
[TestNG] Time taken by [email protected]: 7 ms
[TestNG] Time taken by [FailedReporter passed=0 failed=0 skipped=0]: 0 ms
[TestNG] Time taken by [email protected]: 69 ms
[TestNG] Time taken by [email protected]: 4 ms

2.2. [@DataProvider](https://github.com/DataProvider "@DataProvider")支持傳遞一個對象參數。 下面的例子顯示瞭如何傳遞一個Map對象作爲參數。

創建一個名稱爲:TestParameterDataProvider2.java 的文件, 其代碼如下所示 -

package com.yiibai;

import java.io.IOException;
import java.io.InputStream;
import java.util.HashMap;
import java.util.Map;
import java.util.Properties;

import org.testng.Assert;
import org.testng.annotations.DataProvider;
import org.testng.annotations.Test;

public class TestParameterDataProvider2 {

    @Test(dataProvider = "dbconfig")
    public void testConnection(Map<String, String> map) {

        for (Map.Entry<String, String> entry : map.entrySet()) {
            System.out.println("[Key] : " + entry.getKey() + " [Value] : " + entry.getValue());
        }

    }

    @DataProvider(name = "dbconfig")
    public Object[][] provideDbConfig() {
        Map<String, String> map = readDbConfig();
        return new Object[][] { { map } };
    }

    public Map<String, String> readDbConfig() {

        Properties prop = new Properties();
        InputStream input = null;
        Map<String, String> map = new HashMap<String, String>();

        try {
            input = getClass().getClassLoader().getResourceAsStream("db.properties");

            prop.load(input);

            map.put("jdbc.driver", prop.getProperty("jdbc.driver"));
            map.put("jdbc.url", prop.getProperty("jdbc.url"));
            map.put("jdbc.username", prop.getProperty("jdbc.username"));
            map.put("jdbc.password", prop.getProperty("jdbc.password"));

        } catch (Exception e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
        } finally {
            if (input != null) {
                try {
                    input.close();
                } catch (IOException e) {
                    e.printStackTrace();
                }
            }
        }

        return map;

    }

}

執行上面測試類代碼,得到以下結果 -

[TestNG] Running:
  F:\worksp\testng\ParameterTest\src\main\java\com\yiibai\testng.xml

dbconfig : db.properties
poolsize : 10
path => F:\worksp\testng\ParameterTest\db.properties
drivers : com.mysql.jdbc.Driver
connectionURL : jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/test
username : root
password : 123456
Loading class `com.mysql.jdbc.Driver'. This is deprecated. The new driver class is `com.mysql.cj.jdbc.Driver'. The driver is automatically registered via the SPI and manual loading of the driver class is generally unnecessary.
Tue May 02 23:15:52 CST 2017 WARN: Establishing SSL connection without server's identity verification is not recommended. According to MySQL 5.5.45+, 5.6.26+ and 5.7.6+ requirements SSL connection must be established by default if explicit option isn't set. For compliance with existing applications not using SSL the verifyServerCertificate property is set to 'false'. You need either to explicitly disable SSL by setting useSSL=false, or set useSSL=true and provide truststore for server certificate verification.

===============================================
test-parameter
Total tests run: 1, Failures: 0, Skips: 0
===============================================

3. @DataProvider + 方法

此示例顯示如何根據測試方法名稱傳遞不同的參數。

創建一個名稱爲:TestParameterDataProvider3.java 的文件, 其代碼如下所示 -

package com.yiibai;

import java.lang.reflect.Method;
import org.testng.Assert;
import org.testng.annotations.DataProvider;
import org.testng.annotations.Test;

public class TestParameterDataProvider3 {

    @Test(dataProvider = "dataProvider")
    public void test1(int number, int expected) {
        Assert.assertEquals(number, expected);
    }

    @Test(dataProvider = "dataProvider")
    public void test2(String email, String expected) {
        Assert.assertEquals(email, expected);
    }

    @DataProvider(name = "dataProvider")
    public Object[][] provideData(Method method) {

        Object[][] result = null;

        if (method.getName().equals("test1")) {
            result = new Object[][] {
                { 1, 1 }, { 200, 200 }
            };
        } else if (method.getName().equals("test2")) {
            result = new Object[][] {
                { "[email protected]", "[email protected]" },
                { "[email protected]", "[email protected]" }
            };
        }

        return result;

    }

}

執行上面測試類代碼,得到以下結果 -

[TestNG] Running:
  C:\Users\Administrator\AppData\Local\Temp\testng-eclipse-817554174\testng-customsuite.xml

PASSED: test1(1, 1)
PASSED: test1(200, 200)
PASSED: test2("[email protected]", "[email protected]")
PASSED: test2("[email protected]", "[email protected]")

===============================================
    Default test
    Tests run: 4, Failures: 0, Skips: 0
===============================================


===============================================
Default suite
Total tests run: 4, Failures: 0, Skips: 0
===============================================

[TestNG] Time taken by [email protected]: 17 ms
[TestNG] Time taken by [email protected]: 51 ms
[TestNG] Time taken by [email protected]: 9 ms
[TestNG] Time taken by [FailedReporter passed=0 failed=0 skipped=0]: 0 ms
[TestNG] Time taken by [email protected]: 93 ms
[TestNG] Time taken by [email protected]: 5 ms

4. @DataProvider + ITestContext

在TestNG中,我們可以使用org.testng.ITestContext來確定調用當前測試方法的運行時參數。 在最後一個例子中,我們將演示如何根據包含的分組名稱傳遞參數。

創建一個名稱爲:TestParameterDataProvider4.java 的文件, 其代碼如下所示 -

package com.yiibai;

import org.testng.Assert;
import org.testng.ITestContext;
import org.testng.annotations.DataProvider;
import org.testng.annotations.Test;

public class TestParameterDataProvider4 {

    @Test(dataProvider = "dataProvider", groups = {"groupA"})
    public void test1(int number) {
        Assert.assertEquals(number, 1);
    }

    @Test(dataProvider = "dataProvider", groups = "groupB")
    public void test2(int number) {
        Assert.assertEquals(number, 2);
    }

    @DataProvider(name = "dataProvider")
    public Object[][] provideData(ITestContext context) {

        Object[][] result = null;

        //get test name
        //System.out.println(context.getName());

        for (String group : context.getIncludedGroups()) {

            System.out.println("group : " + group);

            if ("groupA".equals(group)) {
                result = new Object[][] { { 1 } };
                break;
            }

        }

        if (result == null) {
            result = new Object[][] { { 2 } };
        }
        return result;

    }

}

創建一個名稱爲:testng4.xml 的文件, 其代碼如下所示 -

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<suite name="test-parameter">

    <test name="example1">

        <groups>
            <run>
                <include name="groupA" />
            </run>
        </groups>

        <classes>
            <class name="com.yiibai.TestParameterDataProvider4" />
        </classes>

    </test>

</suite>

執行上面測試類代碼,得到以下結果 -

[TestNG] Running:
  F:\worksp\testng\ParameterTest\src\main\java\com\yiibai\testng4.xml

group : groupA

===============================================
test-parameter
Total tests run: 1, Failures: 0, Skips: 0
===============================================