集合

一個集合可以被定義爲無序的集合,它是可迭代的,可變的,並且其中不包含重複的元素。 在Python中,set類是數學集的一種表示法。 使用集合的主要優點是它包含用於檢查特定元素的高度優化的方法。

Python包含一個獨立的類別,稱爲凍結集。 這些集合是不可變的對象,只支持產生所需結果的方法和運算符。

如何實現集合?

以下程序演示如何實現集合 -

# Set in Python

# Creating two sets
set1 = set()
set2 = set()

# Adding elements to set1
for i in range(1, 6):
   set1.add(i)

# Adding elements to set2
for i in range(3, 8):
   set2.add(i)

print("Set1 = ", set1)
print("Set2 = ", set2)
print("\n")

# Union of set1 and set2
set3 = set1 | set2# set1.union(set2)
print("Union of Set1 & Set2: Set3 = ", set3)

# Intersection of set1 and set2
set4 = set1 & set2# set1.intersection(set2)
print("Intersection of Set1 & Set2: Set4 = ", set4)
print("\n")

# Checking relation between set3 and set4
if set3 > set4: # set3.issuperset(set4)
   print("Set3 is superset of Set4")
elif set3 < set4: # set3.issubset(set4)
   print("Set3 is subset of Set4")
else : # set3 == set4
   print("Set3 is same as Set4")

# displaying relation between set4 and set3
if set4 < set3: # set4.issubset(set3)
   print("Set4 is subset of Set3")
   print("\n")

# difference between set3 and set4
set5 = set3 - set4
print("Elements in Set3 and not in Set4: Set5 = ", set5)
print("\n")

# checkv if set4 and set5 are disjoint sets
if set4.isdisjoint(set5):
   print("Set4 and Set5 have nothing in common\n")

# Removing all the values of set5
set5.clear()

print("After applying clear on sets Set5: ")
print("Set5 = ", set5)

執行上面示例代碼,得到以下結果 -

集合

以下程序演示凍結集合的使用 -

normal_set = set(["a", "b","c"])

# Adding an element to normal set is fine
normal_set.add("d")

print("Normal Set")
print(normal_set)

# A frozen set
frozen_set = frozenset(["e", "f", "g"])

print("Frozen Set")
print(frozen_set)

執行上面示例代碼,得到以下結果 -
集合

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